Bruce Tuckman föreslår en fyrstegsmodell för grupputveckling. Tuckmans modell menar att den ideala gruppens beslutsprocessen bör ske i fyra steg:
Forming – gruppens tillblivelse under vilken medlemmarna orienterar sig om varandra
Storming – ett stadium präglat av konflikterna mellan gruppmedlemmarnas olika förväntningar.
Norming – gruppen formar på grundval av konfliktlösningar en viss ordning och rolluppdelning
Performing – gruppen är genom sin utvecklingsprocess beredd att utföra en gemensam uppgift. Tuckman la i senare skede till en avslutande fas,
(Adjourning – fasen handlar om gruppens avslut.)
Using the Tool
As a team leader, your aim is to help your team reach and sustain high performance as soon as possible. To do this, you will need to change your approach at each stage. The steps below will help ensure you are doing the right thing at the right time.
Identify which stage of the team development your team is at from the descriptions above.
Now consider what needs to be done to move towards the Performing stage, and what you can do to help the team do that effectively. The table below (Figure 1) helps you understand your role at each stage, and think about how to move the team forward.
Schedule regular reviews of where your teams are, and adjust your behavior and leadership approach to suit the stage your team has reached.
Figure 1: Leadership Activities at Different Group Formation Stages
Forming Direct the team and establish objectives clearly. (A good way of doing this is to negotiate a team charter .)
Storming Establish process and structure, and work to smooth conflict and build good relationships between team members. Generally provide support, especially to those team members who are less secure. Remain positive and firm in the face of challenges to your leadership or the team's goal. Perhaps explain the "forming, storming, norming and performing" idea so that people understand why conflict's occurring, and understand that things will get better in the future. And consider teaching assertiveness and conflict resolution skills where these are necessary.
Norming Step back and help the team take responsibility for progress towards the goal. This is a good time to arrange a social, or a team-building event
Performing Delegate as far as you sensibly can. Once the team has achieved high performance, you should aim to have as "light a touch" as possible. You will now be able to start focusing on other goals and areas of work
Adjourning When breaking up a team, take the time to celebrate its achievements. After all, you may well work with some of your people again, and this will be much easier if people view past experiences positively.
Make sure that you leave plenty of time in your schedule to coach team members through the "Forming," "Storming," and "Norming" stages.
Think about how much progress you should expect towards the goal and by when, and measure success against that. Remember that you've got to go through the "Forming," "Storming," and "Norming" stages before the team starts "Performing," and that there may not be much progress during this time. Communicating progress against appropriate targets is important if your team's members are to feel that what they're going through is worth while. Without such targets, they can feel that, "Three weeks have gone by and we've still not got anywhere."
Not all teams and situations will behave in this way, however many will – use this approach, but don't try to force situations to fit it. And make sure that people don't use knowledge of the "storming" stage as a license for boorish behavior.
Teams are formed because they can achieve far more than their individual members can on their own, and while being part of a high-performing team can be fun, it can take patience and professionalism to get to that stage.
Effective team leaders can accelerate that process and reduce the difficulties that team members experience by understanding what they need to do as their team moves through the stages from forming to storming, norming and, finally, performing.- See more at: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_86.htm#sthash.DFCTw9XA.dpuf